Exploring the concept of climate surprises : a review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change.
Although most models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events, or "surprises," that cause the most damage to human health and property. This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policy making. I...
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U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Energy Research